Monday, January 3, 2011

What is cloning?

What is Cloning?

1. Who is Dolly?

Dolly is a cloned sheep that was founded in 1997.

2. When a zygote divides into to separate cells, it is called: Embryo Twinning

3. Somatic cells are also called Diploid cells.

4. In order to clone a gene, a gene is inserted into a plasmid.

5. In order to create an embryo from a somatic cell, the donor egg cell must have its nucleus removed.

Click and Clone

6. List all the materials needed to clone a mouse.

A mouse you will clone

an egg cell donor

a surrogate mother to grow the clone


petri dishes

sharp pipette

blunt pipette

a chemical to stimulate cell division.

7. Place the following steps in the correct order.

4. Stimulate cell division
6. Deliver baby
2. Remove and discard the nucleus from the egg cell
1. Isolate donor cells from egg donor and germ cell donor
3. Transfer the somatic cell nucleus into the egg cell
5. Implant embryo into a surrogate mother

8. There are two time gaps in the process of cloning. What are they? (ie. what do you have to wait for?)

You must wait for the new DNA and the egg cell to adjust with one another, and wait until the cell has divided a few times after introducing the DNA and egg to the chemical stimulant to help stimulate cell division.

9. What color with the cloned mouse be? Brown

What is the name of this mouse? Mini Mimi

Why Clone?

10. Why is cloning extinct animals problematic?

Cloning extinct animals is a problematic scientific agenda due to a little reasoning logic. What is the point of bring back animals that have become extinct? History has obviously made the decision to get rid of the organism. Why must we bring it make from the grave? How is their presence going to change the world that we have created? If dinosaurs or woolly mammoths are brought back, then wouldn't they suffer? I mean, they would have to adjust to massive temperature changes, environmental changes, different food supply, etc. There is an endless amount of changes from their time to ours.

11. What are some reasons a person might want to clone a human?

A couple that is infertile, to replace a deceased child, and to help gay couples become parents.

The Clone Zone

12. What animal was cloned in 1885?

The sea urchin was cloned in 1885.

13. How did Spemann separate the two cells of the embryo of a salamander in 1902?

He separated the two cells by creating a tiny noose, which was made out of a single strand of baby hair. The baby hair tightened the it between the two cells of the embryo, until they were separated.

14. The process of removing a nucleus is called is called enucleating.

15. In 1952, the nucleus of a frog embryo cell was placed into a donor cell. Did it work to clone the animal?

Not entirely, they successfully cloned them, but the ones who did survive had abnormalities.

16. Can the nucleus of an adult cell be injected into an egg cell and produce a clone?


17. Why are mammals hard to clone?

The DNA is very intricate and mammals oftentimes progress differently depending on environment.

18. What were the names of the first two cloned cows?

Fusion and Copy were the names of the first two cloned cows.

19. In what year was the National Bioethics Advisory Council formed?

It was formed in 1995.

20. The first mammal clone to be produced from an adult (somatic) cell?

Dolly the sheep was the first mammal clone to be produced from an adult somatic cell.

21. What do scientists do to adult cells to make them "behave" like embryos?

Scientists remove the nucleus of somatic cell, and transfer it into the nucleated egg cell, reprogramming it to behave like embryos.

22. Transgenic, cloned sheep were used to produce what medical protein?

Farm animals such as cows, sheep and goats are currently being genetically engineered to produce drugs or proteins that are useful in medicine.

23. What is a stem cell?

Stem cells are the body's building blocks, responsible for developing, maintaining and repairing the body throughout life. As a result, they might be used to repair damaged or diseased organs and tissues.

Cloning Myths

24. Briefly describe in your own words, why CC the cat was not identical in color to Rainbow, even though she was a clone/

The answer lies on the X chromosome. In cats, a gene that helps determine coat color resides on this chromosome. Both CC and Rainbow, being females, have two X chromosomes. (Males have one X and one Y chromosome.) Since the two cats have the exact same X chromosomes, they have the same two coat color genes, one specifying black and the other specifying orange .Very early in her development, each of Rainbow's cells "turned off" one entire X chromosome - and therefore, turned off either the black color gene or the orange one. This process, called X-inactivation, happens normally in females, in order to prevent them from having twice as much X-chromosome activity as males. It also happens randomly, meaning that not every cell turns off the same X chromosome.

25. What is "nature vs nurture"?

Basically, this means that while genetics can help determine traits, environmental influences have a considerable impact on shaping an individuals physical appearance and personality. For example, do you know any identical twins? They are genetically the same, but do they really look and act exactly alike?

Is it Cloning or Not?

26. For each of the following scenarios, indicate YES (it is cloning) or NO (it is not cloning)

NOT Sperm taken from a mole goat is combined with a female's egg in a petri dish. The resulting embryo is implanted into the female's uterus to develop

YES A sheep embryo, composed of 16 cells, is removed from the mother's uterus and separated into individual cells. Each cell is allowed to multiply, creating 16 separate embryos, which are then implanted in different female sheep to develop to maturity.

NOT A cow with many desirable traits is stimulated with hormones to produce a number of egg cells. Each of these eggs is fertilized and implanted into a surrogate mother.

NOT In vitro fertilization

YES Cell nuclei from an extinct woolly mammoth are placed into enucleated cow cells.

27. Define or describe each of the following processes (you may need to reset the Cloning or Not Screen)

Invitro fertilization- The embryo, which is created through the fusion of male's sperm and the female's egg, will not be identical to any other organism.

Embryo splitting-The 16 cells are removed from the mother's uterus and separated into individual cells. Then each cell is allowed to multiply, and this will create 16 separate embryos. After this has happened, then the embryos will be inserted into a different female to develop into maturity.

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-"In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory technique for creating a clonal embryo, using an ovum with a donor nucleus."

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer-"Multiple ovulation embryo transfer is a way to produce an animal of certain genetic qualities faster. The multiple ovulation part is where the female animal is manipulated hormonally to produce more than the usual number of eggs during ovulation. The chosen male's semen, containing the genes you are selecting are placed to fertilise the eggs in the female. the new embryos are then removed from the female before they are attached to the uterine wall. This is the embryo transfer part. Other female animals are used because their oestrous cycle is at the right point to recieve the embryo. Hormones can be used to manipulate the recieving animal's oestrous cycle as well."

Artificial Insemination-"Artificial insemination, or AI, is the process by which sperm is placed into the reproductive tract of a female for the purpose of impregnating the female by using means other than sexual intercourse or NI."

What Are the Risks of Cloning?

28. What is one reason why cloning animals has such a high failure rate?

Here is a list of reasons why cloning animals has such a high failure rate:

  • he enucleated egg and the transferred nucleus may not be compatible
  • An egg with a newly transferred nucleus may not begin to divide or develop properly
  • Implantation of the embryo into the surrogate mother might fail
  • The pregnancy itself might fail

29. What is a telomere and how does it affect cloned animals?

Telomere is basically is the DNA sequences at both ends of the chromosome that will shrink the length of the sequence every time the DNA is copied. ". Chromosomes from cloned cattle or mice had longer telomeres than normal. These cells showed other signs of youth and seemed to have an extended lifespan compared with cells from a naturally conceived cow. On the other hand, Dolly the sheep's chromosomes had shorter telomere lengths than normal. This means that Dolly's cells were aging faster than the cells from a normal sheep."

30. Pick one of the questions to ponder and ....ponder it. Write a brief essay on your thoughts and opinions.

What are the benefits? What are the risks? Whom will the technology help? Does it have the potential to hurt anyone?
What does this mean for me? For my family? For others around me? Why might others not share my view?

There are several benefits to the cloning of humans, in actual. The first one is rejuvenation. This will help aging people look younger by the production of cloned tissue. "According to Dr. Richard Seed, one of the leading proponents of human cloning technology, one day it should be possible to reverse the aging process." The second one is for heart attack treatment. Dying from a heart attack is the #1 killer. Scientists will be able to clone healthy heart cells and remove the "bad" cells and replace them with the healthy ones. Another reason is for the cloning of human stem cells. Recent experiments have showed that nascent cells can grow and produce human organs and tissue. This can be used for replacing/repairing damaged organs/tissue. Infertility can help couples have children and reproduce. "The success rate of current infertility treatments is very low. Further, the couple has to go through tormenting procedures for a small chance of getting a child. The advent of human cloning technology will make it possible for infertile couples to have child than ever before." Using the cloning treatments during surgeries are also extremely beneficial. Silicon gels and other cosmetics are used during surgery. These are known for causing immune disease. If you lose a limb, then scientists have been able to get you a false arm, but it is not as functional. In the future, they want to have something that will be already present in the body. Amputees can have regenerated arms/legs/fingers/toes etc. It is estimated that a person has 8 defective genes inside their body. With cloning, this rate can go down, even become 0 defective genes. People who are interested in plastic/cosmetic surgey will love this. New technologies can come from cloning, like implants. A problem in society is people judging each other by how they look. Women can have their "good" genes cloned, it lower the change of their children being born with any type of genetic diseases. Another things is with the bone marrow. There are very few who will suffer through the pain just to donate. Bone marrow is needed to help Leukemia patients. Scientists will be able to clone the cells in bone marrow Accidents happen. Car crashes etc are common, but they can have major impact on the body. Cloning can help for a safer recovery for the victim. One of the most important would be helping with cancers and other diseases that preferred a new vital organ. If we are able to create a new heart, then someone's live can be spared. We can clone, skin for skin cancer patients, lungs, kidneys, etc. Think of all the people we could save from dying of deadly disease. Roughly 7.2 to 7.5 million people worldwide die of cancer each year. It may just seem like a number to you, but it will really hit you when it happens to someone you know or you. Wouldn't you want to an organ secured for you, if you ever needed it? Waiting on the donors list can take a long time. There have been success stories from around the world. Now is the time to try something new that could eventually change medicine was we know it. There are benefits in animal cloning as well. The major benefit is being able to clone extinct animals like dinosaurs and mammoths, or cloning endangered animals. The human race has depleted the natural world that was habitat to some animals.

Thursday, December 16, 2010

Should we Grow GM Crops?

1. What is a GM Crops? GM crops ."GM crops are genetically modified. GM is a special set of technologies that alter the genetic makeup of organisms such as animals, plants, or bacteria." The food as a specific change in their DNA.

2. List 2 arguments FOR the growing of GM crops

GM foods can offer up many health benefits. GM food/crops have a longer live on the shelf and it will leave traditional crops "in the dust." "They will be better for us, with some products already in the works benefiting our waistlines (low-calorie sugar beets and oils with lower saturated fat content, for example) and others bearing higher nutritional content (high-fiber corn and high-starch potatoes). And they will be safer to eat." The food as a lower percentage of toxins, pesticides, and herbicides. The GM food will also be great benefits for the poor people of the world. Malnutrition is a grave problem in many countries. In a matter of time, the GM factories will "serve as environmentally friendly 'factories' that mass-produce useful substances such as pharmaceuticals." Scientists are currently testing ways to put vaccines into the crops because vaccines are costly to manufacture and there is little storage place for them in newly developing countries. These "tasty" vaccines, researchers and developers say, will be easier to administer, manufacture, and store. GM patrons also insist that farmers will reap great benefits from the biodiversity. Insects have become a problem to some farmers. The crops will can immune to the pesky little bugs and can "ignore" them. GM advocates can actually benefit the environment. "In the U.S. alone, farmers spray, spread, and otherwise administer more than 970 million tons of insect- and plant-killers every year. These pose threats to the environment. Pesticide residues linger on crops and in soil, find their way into the guts of wildlife that eat contaminated foliage, and leach into groundwater and wash into streams." The farmers will use fewer chemicals with the genetically modified crops. Scientists say that they can "naturally" modify the crops. In the natural world, plants and animals modify themselves.

3. List 2 arguments AGAINST the growing of GM crops.

GM foods can be extremely hazardous and pose health risks to children and adults alike. There are common allergies to peanuts and other foods. The genetically modified foods can bring up new allergies, which can be extremely fatal to humans. "Another potential hazard to human health is the possibility that bacteria in our guts could pick up antibiotic-resistance genes found in many GM foodstuffs." The GM crops can also hurt small business farmers. GM crops will be too expensive for poor farmers in developing countries. There is also a factor that the GM crops could cause environmental issues and harm. The GM crops, are feared, to also hinger the animal kingdom, especially if the organism eats the crops that are genetically modified. Annoying bugs, like the mosquito, can adapt and become tolerant to the pesticides. It is also going against what people have believed about the natural world. They feel like the genetically modified organisms are going against nature's natural ways.

Engineer a Crop

4. Practice this simulation until you get the largest ears of corn. How many times did it take you?

I only needed to do the simulation 1 time, before I was able to get the largest ear of corn.

What’s for Dinner?

*Click on the foods on the table to see what research is being done to bioenginner the foods.

5. List two foods and desribe how they are being modified.

Rice: One of the foods, that is a main ingredient for sushi, that is genetically modified, is rice. Rice is one of the three main crops that scientists have really emphasized on. Researchers have conducted many experiments, testing the different levels of starch, pest resistance, and "edible nutrition," which is genetically adding vitamins and minerals that are not naturally present.

Fruit: There is a variety of fruit that researchers are testing and researching all of the fruits listed strawberries, melons, pears, grapefruit, apples, watermelons, and many others.


*Read the article titled “Are GM Food Sufficiently Regulated in the US?”

Do you think food should be labeled if it has been genetically modified? Why or Why not?

I think that foods should be labeled if it has been genetically modified because the consumers have the right to know what they are eating. Wouldn't you want to know what you were putting inside your body? Also, people could have a severe allergy to one or more of the products used to genetically modify the food. By just telling the consumers, it will save the company the process of not telling and something negative happened to one of the consumers. Now a days, companies are not very honest about what they put inside their product. With the whole Mattel shindig, I feel that it is necessary for the company to trust come clean. If they are just straight forward, then they will not lose buyers because of the scandals that will come with not being truthful. If the company does not want to tell the consumers what chemicals (etc) are in their product, (because they are scare that not enough money would be made) should they even put it in there? If they do not want to tell their buyers? Is it really worth it?

Finished? Go to and type

Finished? Go to and type "genetic engineering" in the search field. Browse some of the sites that pop up.

Write down any of the sites you visited below.

Monday, December 6, 2010

Epigenetics and Environment

Insights from Identical Twins:

Because both of the twins come from the same zygote, then they will have the same genome. Nature and Nurture are part of the influence. Studying twins are a key and helpful way to understand nature and nurture.

1. Often the physical characteristics of genetically identical twins become increasingly different as they age, even at a molecular level. Explain why this is so.
The video was reflecting on the fact that the environment that the person in under the influence of is key to their epigenome. The video was talking about how identical twins are very similar at birth, but other time, they become more unique as an individual. It showed the process that with age and time, the twins epigenome became different from one another. Different factors can influence the twin's epigenome. The habits that the twin has will also differentiate the two individuals. Habits like smoking or exercising will affect the epigenome of the particular person.

Name 3-4 environmental factors that influence the epigenome.
One of the factors would be smoking or being around smokers. Second hand smoking an smoking can severe negative impact the epigenome. Daily exercise and working out is positive factor. The person will become more fit and healthier when they incorporate exercise into their daily routine. Another one that can have a positive and negative influence is food. The food that they consume is a huge factor. We obviously need food to survive, but the food choices are important. Whether you choose to eat healthy (vegetables, fruits, whole grains, organic, etc.) or "junky" (sugars, fatty foods, McDonalds, fast foods joints) is your decision. Probably the most important is the household that you are grew/growing in. Parents actions have a big influence on who you are. Whether your parents are carefree and fun or uptight and strict, it will affect your personality and epigenome. House and school stress can also impact your epigenome.

What is an imprinting gene?
"Imprinted genes are genes whose expression is determined by the parent that contributed them."

Discuss factors in your daily life that could be affecting your epigenome.

One of the most influential factors is school related stress. There always seems like there are endless amounts of homework, tests, quizzes, and projects to keep me stressed. There is always something school-related that I can be working on. My parents are very healthy eaters, so my diet consists of fruits, vegetables, organic foods, and other healthy items. My parents always open me to try new foods and different styles of food. We hardly eat junk food. I have somehow found a way to incorporate daily exercise. I sometimes take 20 to 30 minutes to run 2-3 miles when my parents are training for their marathon. I have soccer practices for 2 hours, two times a week, and a game every weekend.

Lick your Rats:

1. Explain how a high-nurturing mother rat shapes her pup's epigenome, and what that

pup's response to stress will be.

In the hippocampus of the brain, one of its jobs is to relieve stress. Depending how much the pup was nurtured will affect how much of the GR protein is produced; the more the better. During the fight or flight The brain produces the hormone cortisol which is put into the blood stream. When connected/bind to the GR protein, which will cause the cell to send out calming signals. The more nurture the rat has from its mother, the quicker the pup will recover from the stress.

2. In rats, does licking by the mother activate, or deactivate her pup's GR gene?

The mother's licking will activate the pup's GR gene.

3. Explain how cortisol and the GR protein work together in the brain to relax a rat pup.

You may draw a diagram.

Depending how much the pup was nurtured will affect how much of the GR protein is produced; the more the better. The more of the GP protein is created, the quicker the pup will be able to release stress. During the fight or flight The brain produces the hormone cortisol which is put into the blood stream. When connected/bind to the GR protein, which will cause the cell to send out calming signals. The more nurture the rat has from its mother, the quicker the pup will recover from the stress.

4. The rat nurturing example shows us how parental behavior can shape the behavior of

their offspring on a biochemical level. Relate this to humans and think about the personal

and social implications. Record your thoughts.

The love that is shown to a child can be the grooming of the rat. The more love, affection, and praise, the child grows up on will make them have a more friendly personality. The amount of affection showed can also affect the person's personality.


1. Explain how the food we eat affects gene expression.

"Familiar nutrients like folic acid, B vitamins and SAM-e (S-Adenosyl methionine, a popular over-the-counter supplement) are key components of this methyl-making pathway. Diets high in these methyl-donating nutrients can rapidly alter gene expression, especially during early development when the epigenome is first being established."

2. Can the diets of parents affect their offspring's epigenome?

Yes. When a mother consumes food, she is "feeding two." The food that the mother eats when you are in the womb is extremely important. What your mother eats during pregnancy will affect you throughout your entire. The father of the child has a part of the epigenome. How much the grandfather ate between the ages of nine and twelve can affect the lifespan on his grandchildren. "Shortage of food for the grandfather was associated with extended lifespan of his grandchildren. Food abundance, on the other hand, was associated with a greatly shortened lifespan of the grandchildren." I read this article that was talking about the link from the mother to the child. The foods that the mother eats are more likely to attract the child in the later life, with the tastes/flavors and smells. The article was also talking about the influence of alcohol. Mothers, consuming alcohol, can have children may be more attracted to alcohol because the developing fetus 'expects' that whatever comes from the mother must be safe." The more healthier the mother eats, the more attracted the child is to healthier.


1. How does Dietary methyl influence gene expression?

Basically, The Dietary Methyl influence gene is expression when you have a certain amount of methyl that your body will retain from the nutrients in your food. This food needs to be able to make you healthy. You have a significantly higher chance of becoming obese if you have a methyl-deficient diet.

2. Why do Toxins affect gene methylation?

The toxins affect the gene methylation by ruining your health. Different chemicals can have different affects. Take the chemical BPA for instance. BPA can cause endocrine problems like obesity, stunted growth, and birth defects.

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

DNA Fingerprinting

1. DNA is unique for everyone. The only exception is if a person has what?

The only exception is when a person has an identical twin because they have the same cells in the body.

2. What are DNA fingerprints used for?

DNA fingerprints can be used for anything from determining a biological mother or father of a child to identifying the suspect of a crime.

Part 1 “It Takes a Lickin”

3. What “crime” was committed?

Some unknown person broke into Jimmy Sweet's room on November 1, at about 8:15. His hologram NOVA lollipop. The lollipop has been removed from the once air-tight bag. Jimmy is suspicious of one of his seven sisters.

4. What bodily fluid was removed from the “crime scene” to get DNA?

Saliva was removed from the crime scene. The lollipop was licked, so it had to leave behind a trance of saliva.

Part 2 “DNA Fingerprinting at the NOVA Lab”

5. What does a restriction enzyme do?

The restriction enzymes act like scissors, and they will cut the DNA strand in various places. Where the enzymes cut is influenced by the code within the DNA molecule and the codes within the enzyme. The length of the DNA strands will depend and vary from person to person.

6. What is agarose gel?

Agarose gel is is a thick liquid, that it kind of like Jello. It will act as a molecule strainer, allowing smaller pieces of DNA to move through more easily than larger pieces.

7. What is electrophoresis?

Electrophoresis is basically to moving of molecules using electric currents. Princeton's World Net web's definition was: "the motion of charged particles in a colloid under the influence of an electric field; particles with a positive charge go to the cathode and negative to the anode." UCBiotech's definition was, "Method using an electrical field which leads to the separation of proteins or DNA fragments based on their size. Smaller proteins or DNA fragments move faster; larger ones slower. Samples are normally placed in the electrical field loaded in a gel-like substance, called agar or agarose."

8. Smaller fragments of DNA move ____________ than longer strands?

Smaller fragments of DNA move faster than longer strands. 9. Why do you need to place a nylon membrane over the gel?

The agarose gel is extremely difficult to work with because it is flimsy. The DNA gets transferred onto the nylon membrane. "The DNA was sucked up into the membrane as liquid traveled up from the gel toward an absorbent material that was placed over the membrane."

10. Probes attach themselves to __________

Probes attach themselves to DNA fragments on the nylon membrane.

11. Which chemical in your “virtual lab” is radioactive?


12. Sketch your DNA fingerprint.

13. Based on your DNA fingerprint, who licked the lollipop?

The lollipop was licked by Honey Sweet.

Click on the Link “DNA Workshop” (if this link won't load, scroll down to the bottom where it says "try the non-java script version)
Once you’re there, go to the link “DNA Workshop Activity” and practice with DNA replication and protein synthesis.

14. What kinds of things could you do at the DNA workshop?

From the DNA workshop, I was able to visually see and go through the process of replication of the DNA. I was also able to match up base pairs, transcribe DNA, and match anti-codons.

Find an Article about DNA

Go to

15. Read an article about genetics at this site that you might find interesting, or use the "Search" box in the upper right hand corner to search for DNA fingerprinting

Title: DNA fingerprinting can reveal your surname

by: Allen Severs (London)

"Police could one day predict the surname of a male suspects or victims of crime from DNA alone."

Scientists at the Leicester University (where DNA fingerprinting was invented) said that they had demonstrated that men with the same surname were highly likely to be genetically linked. Detectives will be able to investigate crimes using the slightest amount of DNA from blood, hair, saliva, or semen. A study was conducted using 2,500 men, they would an average of 24% chance of men with the same surname sharing a same ancestor. There was 50% chance of men with the same RARE surname sharing a common ancestor. Over 70% of men that have the surnames of Attenborough and Swindlehurst shared the same or near identical Y chromosome.

Wednesday, November 3, 2010


1. Which stage does the following occur

Chromatin condenses into chromosomes: Prophase

Chromosomes align in center of cell: Metaphase

Longest part of the cell cycle: Interphase

Nuclear envelope breaks down: Prometaphase

Cell is cleaved into two new daughter cells: Cytokinesis

Daughter chromosomes arrive at the poles: Telophase

2. The colored chromosomes represent chromatids. There are two of each color because one is an exact duplicate of the other.

How many chromosomes are visible at the beginning of mitosis? 8 strands

How many are in each daughter cell at the end of mitosis? 4 daughter cells

The little green T shaped things on the cell are: centrioles

What happens to the centrioles during mitosis? The centrioles will divide after the DNA replicates. This will happen during the Interphase.

Identify the stages of these cells:
3 . Identify the stages of these cells: Telephase prophase


The nucleus is in the center and the centrioles are going near the end of the "poles" of the cell. The chromosomes are in the center of the nucleus.


The spinal fibers have connected near the center of the cell. The chromosomes are in the same position that they were in during prophase. The centrioles are also in the same position in prophase.


This is the last step in the process of mitosis. This process is when the cells have completing the duplicating and they have split into two separate cells. Every daughter cell has the same amount as their parents cell had.

Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Total
number of cells 20 10 3 2 1 36
percent of cells 55% 28% 8% 6% 3% 100%

View 1
View 2
View 3
View 4
View 5
Whitefish telophase metaphase prophase anaphase there is no view 5
Onion metaphase metaphase prophase interphase anaphase